Birds were among the first species of domesticated animals. It is believed that the first poultry were geese, and after them people learned to raise chickens. Then ducks, guinea fowls and turkeys began to appear in the courtyard. The most recent domesticated bird species was quail – they began to be bred only from the beginning of the 20th century.
Poultry farming is usually divided into two types – according to its goals – into meat and egg.
As for meat, it is obtained from all types of poultry. Of course, broilers are the backbone of meat poultry farming – the undisputed leaders in terms of meat selection among all birds. This rapid growth is ensured by rich feeding of artificially bred broiler chicken breeds.
It is worth noting among chickens and guinea fowl. Guinea fowl is a meat breed of chickens, which differs from its relatives in a pronounced taste, similar to a partridge. It is for its tender nutritious meat that guinea fowls are valued among poultry farmers.
But the leaders in weight are turkeys. The weight of an adult turkey can reach 20 kg, and on average is 10-17 kg, turkeys weigh about 7-9 kg.
Geese, on the other hand, lost their lead in terms of breeding volumes only to chickens. Geese are bred in order to obtain meat, which is distinguished by its taste, as well as feathers and down.
Quails have become popular in recent years due to the dietary qualities of both meat and eggs. This is a fairly promising poultry industry that has yet to develop.
Ducks are less popular with poultry farmers despite the high quality meat and eggs. The fact is that rearing ducks requires a reservoir, and not every amateur poultry breeder can afford it. Besides, ducks are “famous” for their gluttony. However, this is not entirely fair, because a good appetite is the key to rapid growth, and fast growth is the main goal of poultry meat farming.
In order to obtain eggs, of course, mainly chickens are raised. True, many bred ducks and quails for this purpose. Eggs are one of the main sources of animal protein for the population.
Currently, two parallel processes are taking place – on the one hand, the enlargement of poultry egg farms and, on the other hand, an increase in the population’s demand for natural eggs from organic farms and farms.
Features of poultry farming and its differences from other industries
With rising incomes of the population and an increase in people’s attention to the quality of purchased products, more and more consumers are abandoning cultured broilers and opting for farm birds raised on natural feed without the use of additives, growth activators and antibiotics. And what is good news, retail chains and restaurants are joining the number of such buyers.
In such a situation, a private producer has the opportunity to create an organic poultry farm and find its buyer. And the prices for such poultry on the market are higher than for industrially grown ones, so the costs will pay off with the right approach to business.
For a personal subsidiary farm, poultry farming can even become a means of saving. The fact is that birds, in particular chickens, are almost omnivorous, and can eat any leftovers from the table and food waste. Thus, raising, for example, chickens, you can not only use the leftovers that were previously simply thrown away, but also always have fresh, environmentally friendly eggs and meat on your table.
Poultry farming does not require such material and physical costs as, for example, raising cattle or pigs. Therefore, the development of both small-scale and large-scale poultry farming can have a beneficial effect on the development of the economy, especially if an increase in production volumes will allow exporting poultry products.
But along with favorable conditions, there are also problems of poultry farming. For example, for the successful rearing of poultry, the presence of veterinarians on the farm is required, and with a large number of poultry, several. But there are not enough specialists, and not all of the available veterinarians are ready to work for the money that poultry farms can afford to pay. And the development of veterinary medicine itself in the field of poultry leaves much to be desired. The development of new effective vaccines is needed.
The future of poultry farming is private poultry farms that are well equipped both technically and economically. Having a sufficient technical base and a sensible marketing approach, a poultry farm can produce up to hundreds of products: from banal meat products and semi-finished products to dietary and baby food.